Since mankind discovered fire, cooking has been a part
of life. At first, cooking was merely the use of fire to make food well
done but in the course of the time it has become more and more
diversified. In each region, from the local specialties and by special
cooking methods, many dishes with many region-specific tastes have been
concocted. For many people, cooking and enjoying dishes is not only a
hobby but also an art, even a form of culture: the gastronomic culture.
Vietnam, a country with two large deltas, numerous
mountains, forests and rivers and a 3,200km S-shaped coastline, abounds in
foodstuffs and natural specialties. The Vietnamese have shown their
creativeness in making many tasty dishes from those products, which
constitutes a striking feature of this tropical country.
Together with the old-aged culture, food is also
something representing the way of life that reflects the national
characteristic of Vietnam.
The Chinese like spicy food but the Vietnamese prefer
what is a little flat. The delicious, sweet, flourishing and light foods
found in the way of decorating combined with the natural colors of
vegetables make diners feel satisfied with the skillful way of cooking by
the Vietnamese as well as with the rich products of this country.
It’s hard to explain the great diversity of the
Vietnamese foods from the three different regions: the North, the Central
and the South. Here on this small sheet of paper, we can only recommend
you - tourists - some main foods that the Vietnamese enjoy a lot.
It’s a great necessity to add that the Vietnamese pay
great homage to the family life and that they are very hospitable,
therefore, the image of a family of three generations (grandparents,
parents and grand children) gathering together round the round tray or
that the guests and relatives merrily sitting round the dishes on a divan,
sharing the same foods and using the same bowl or fish sauce (only bowls
and chopsticks are separately used) makes the meals better and increases
the vitality caused by this sentimental atmosphere. And this is the most
predominant feature that, we think, tourists bare in minds forever.
Let’s have a look at the specialties of Vietnam and
it’s up to you to make a choice:
Cơm (boiled rice)
Vietnam, cơm is eaten at the main meals of the day (lunch and dinner).
Rice is eaten together with a variety of different dishes and is made from
different kinds of rice. Typically fragrant rice is used, such as Tam Thom
and Nang Huong. An ordinary meal may consist of boiled rice and the
Mon an kho (meal without soup) consists of dishes of pork, fish,
shrimp, and vegetable cooked in oil, as well as vegetables, pickles, etc.
Mon canh (meal with soup) consists of a soup made with pork or
spare-ribs, crabmeat, and fish.
In the past several years, people in urban centers have begun to go out
for lunch at the food stalls on the street. Consequently, there has been a
proliferation of temporary food stalls along many sidewalks and public
spaces in the cities. Some stalls are open until early in the morning to
cater to regular customers. Around noon, owners can be seen arranging
tables and benches along the pavement to form makeshift shop floors. After
two or three hours, when there are no more customers, they begin to remove
all of their wooden furniture, so that the place resumes its former
appearance. A well-served lunch for one is very inexpensive.
Banh Chung (Sticky Rice Cake)
rice cakes are a Vietnamese traditional dish that must be part of Tet
meals. As a matter of fact, every Vietnamese family must have sticky rice
cakes among the offerings placed on the altar to their ancestors.
chung is made of glutinous rice, pork meat, and green beans paste wrapped
in a square of bamboo leaves, giving the rice a green colour after
According to the legend, under the reign of the Hung Kings, Prince Lang
Lieu created sticky rice cakes and presented them to his father. Bang
chung won high acclaims from the King who awarded the prince his throne.
Making sticky rice cakes is a very meticulous job. To obtain the best
cakes, rice has to soak in water for an entire day. The pork meat must
include skin and fat, the green beans must be of the same size, and the
bamboo leaves must be fresh. Squaring off and tying cakes with bamboo
strings requires skilful hands.
Sticky rice cakes are available at any time of the year, although one
is sure to enjoy them with relatives and friends during Tet. During Tet,
rice cakes are served with gio lua and hanh muoi – lean meat pie and
salted sour onions.
Gio Lua (Lean Pork Pie)
pork pie is available in Vietnam only and has different names in the north
and south. Foreigners as well as Vietnamese are fond of lean pork pie.
Gio lua consists of pork meat wrapped in fresh banana leaves. The little
bundles are then boiled. The most delicious part of lean pork pie is the
top layer since it absorbs the flavour of the banana leaves.
Pho - Noodle Soup
Pho is the most popular food among the Vietnamese
population. Pho is commonly eaten for breakfast, although many people will
have it for their lunch or dinner. Anyone feeling hungry in the small
hours of the morning can also enjoy a bowl of hot and spicy pho to fill
their empty stomachs.
Like hot green tea which has its particular
fragrance, pho also has its special taste and smell. Preparations may
vary, but when the dish is served, its smell and taste is indispensable.
The grated rice noodle is made of the best variety of fragrant rice called
Gao Te. The broth for Pho Bo (Pho with beef) is made by stewing the bones
of cows and pigs in a large pot for a long time. Pieces of fillet mignon
together with several slices of ginger are reserved for Pho Bo Tai (rare
fillet). Slices of well-done meat are offered to those less keen on eating
The soup for Pho Ga (pho with chicken meat) is made by stewing chicken
and pig bones together. The white chicken meat that is usually served with
Pho Ga is boneless and cut into thin slices. You could consider Pho Bo and
Pho Ga Vietnam's special soups. Pho also has the added advantage of being
convenient to prepare and healthy to eat.
Cha Ca (grilled minced fish)
minced fish has been served in Vietnam for more than 100 years. The Doan
family of Cha Ca Street in Hanoi first invented this dish.
variety of fish can be used in this dish including sturgeon and tuna. Tuna
is low in fat, has an exquisite flavour, and few bones. The bones are
separated from the meat and put into saffron water to be later used in a
sauce. The fish is marinated in salt before being grilled.
What is interesting about this dish is that people can add their
favourite condiments: coriander, mint, dill, shallots, and more.
Cốm (Grilled rice)
rice is mostly served in the fall. After collecting the rice from the
fields, several steps have to be performed to obtain excellent cốm. After
removing the grains from their hulks, the rice is wrapped in lotus leaves
to keep it from drying and to allow it to absorb the lotus flavor.
Grilled rice can be found everywhere in Vietnam, but the best cốm is found
in Vong village, 5 km from Hanoi. People in this village still use
traditional secret recipes. People eat grilled rice with eggs, bananas, or
Banh Cuon (Rice Flour Steamed Rolls)
banh cuon for breakfast is a great favorite among many Vietnamese.
Banh cuon is made of rice flour. Thoroughly selected rice is soaked
overnight, then ground with a stone mortar. Food preservatives are put
into the flour to make the rice sheets softer and smoother. A screen of
cloth used to mold the rice sheets is fitted over the opening of a pot of
boiling water. Flour is spread on the screen and covered with a lid. After
a few minutes, a bamboo stick is used to strip the thin layer of flour off
the screen. Then it is rolled up and sprinkled with fried onions.
A small village in a suburb of Hanoi is famous for its banh cuon.
People there serve it with a dressing comprised of lean meat, shrimps,
mushrooms, dried onions, fish sauce, and pepper.
All the ingredients are stir-fried and rolled into a banh cuon.
Banh cuon is delicious when it is very thin, white, and sticky. It is
even tastier when dipped in a sweet, sour, and spicy sauce.
Bun (rice vermicelli)
vermicelli is a luxurious as well as a popular dish. There are different
varieties of vermicelli depending on their shape: bun roi or stirred
vermicelli, bun mam or twisted vermicelli, bun la or vermicelli paper, and
bun dem tram or shreded vermicelli.
Different ingredients can be served
with vermicelli: grilled pork meat, fried rice cakes, snails, fried eggs,
lean meat pie, chicken, and crab soup, to name a few.
Each region and locality, even each restaurant, has its own vermicelli
dishes with their own recipes.
Mien (vermicelli made of cassava)
Mien threads are very long and tough, made from a kind of
tuber plant called cassava. When served, the long tiny flour threads are
cut into smaller pieces. Like rice vermicelli, this kind of cassava
vermicelli is used to make several different dishes, the most popular
being Mien Ga (chicken cassava vermicelli), Mien Bo (beef cassava
vermicelli), and Mien Luon (eel cassava vermicelli).
is also used for different dishes which are stirred in oil, such as Mien
Xao Thit (vermicelli and pork stirred in fat), Mien Xao Long Ga
(vermicelli and chicken tripe stirred in fat), and Mien Xao Cua Be
(vermicelli and sea crab meat stirred in fat).
Banh Tom (crispy shrimp pastry)
Although Banh Tom is available almost everywhere in the
country, it is best at the Nha Hang Ho Tay (Ho Tay Restaurant) on the
banks of Truc Bach Lake, close to Ho Tay (West Lake) in Hanoi. While
diners await the arrival of the hot fried shrimp pastry, they can enjoy
the picturesque lake and landscapes offered by the vast expanse of water
from West Lake and the tree-lined Thanh Nien Road.
The dish should be eaten as soon as it arrives at the table. The fried
pastry is topped with red shrimps and is eaten together with dishes of
spicy vegetables mixed with sweet and sour sauce.
To remind you of the local shrimping business, waiters will often tell
you that the shrimps that you have ordered for your meal have just been
netted in nearby West Lake. This will be a memorable meal that will ensure
that you remember your stay in Hanoi.
Nom, Goi (salad)
This dish is a combination of a variety of fresh
vegetables, usually used in salads in Western countries. The make-up of
Nom, however, is slightly different.
The main ingredients of Nom include
grated pieces of turnip, cabbage, or papaya, and slices of cucumber with
grated, boiled, lean pork. Other auxiliary ingredients include grated
carrot, slices of hot chilly, and roasted groundnuts. These are used to
make the dish more colourful. All are mixed thoroughly before being soaked
in vinegar, sugar, garlic, hot chilly, and seasoned with salt.
The presentation of the dish is also very meticulous. The mixture of
ingredients is put into a dish before being covered with vegetables.
To try a mouthful of Nom is to enjoy a combination of all the tastes
life has to offer, including sour, hot, sweet, salty, and fragrant tastes.
The dish helps with digestion at meals and parties. It can become an
addictive aid to assist the real connoisseur enjoy more food.
Nem Ran or Cha Gio (fried spring roll)
dish is called Nem Ran by northerners and Cha Gio by southerners. In
Hanoi, the introduction of Nem Ran dates back to a time when Cha Ca had
not existed. Although it ranks among Vietnam's specialty dishes, Nem Ran
is very easy to prepare. Consequently, it has long been a preferred food
on special occasions such as Tet and other family festivities.
Ingredients used for Nem Ran comprise of lean minced pork, sea crabs or
unshelled shrimps, two kinds of edible mushroom (Nam Huong and Moc Nhi),
dried onion, duck eggs, pepper, salt and different kinds of seasoning. All
are mixed thoroughly before being wrapped with transparent rice paper into
small rolls. These rolls are then fried in boiling oil.
Faifo Dainty (Danang)
dainty is a fairly unknown Vietnamese dish named after an old street in
Dainty fiber is carefully made by putting rice in water
containing ashes from wood found in Cu Lao Cham. Then, the rice is ground
and quickly boiled to make a fibrous mixture. Dainty can be preserved only
one day, which is why it is boiled and dried. Dainty fibers have a
The filling for dainty consists of lean pork and other condiments that
are stir-fried. Then, the dainty is cut into finger-long pieces that are
dried and grilled. Finally, the filling is put into the dainty. For a
saltier taste, one can add fish sauce. Chicken meat cut in squares
combined with small shrimps can also be added to the recipe.
Although dainty is not a popular meal in Vietnam, it is still served in
certain restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City.
Tom Chua (Hue Sour Shrimp)
Hue natives living outside the city return to their homeland, they usually
have sour shrimp. Tourists also make sure to buy some jars of sour shrimp
before leaving Hue.
Because of the national reputation of this dish,
some cooks and merchants specialize in making sour shrimp. In the past,
people made this dish at home, but now it is easier to buy it at the
This dish can be prepared with any kind of shrimp. The recipe includes
a number of steps that must be performed in a specific order. First, the
fresh, clean, and dry shrimp of approximately the same size are put in
wine along with dry bamboo shoots, garlic, and chili. The ingredients are
kept in a closed container at room temperature for three days. Then the
container is put in a cool, dry place. After five or seven days, the sour
shrimp are ready.
Com Hen (Hue Mussel Rice)
Hot white rice is part of every meal in Vietnam, but only
Hue mussel rice is served cool. Hue people, after deciding that no food
should be wasted, have designed this dish using leftover rice.
includes Chinese vermicelli, bamboo shoots, lean pork meat, and an
assortment of green vegetables (banana leaves, mint, star fruit, etc.).
The broth obtained after boiling the mussels is used to flavour the
rice. Ginger, sesame, and chili are also added to the broth. This dish is
very spicy and it is not rare to see people with watery eyes and sweaty
faces while eating it; nevertheless, everyone congratulates the cook for
such a delicious meal.
Hue Beef Noodle Soup
One must have years of experience to cook excellent Hue
beef noodle soup. This recipe mainly consists of shredded meat and rice
noodles. Most restaurants and merchants in Hue do not make the rice
noodles themselves; they buy them in Van Cu and Bao Vinh, two villages
located near Hue.
Learning how to make a clear broth from bone and meat
is also a difficult task, but cooks have the satisfaction of seeing
customers enjoying a good meal. The secret of this recipe resides in the
meat–this is why it must be bought directly from the slaughterhouse early
in the morning. The meat is then shredded, boiled, and taken out of the
water to obtain a delicious clear broth.
The amount of salt put in the recipe varies depending on the season;
during summer, Hue beef noodle soup is served with soy bean, mint, and
different kinds of lettuce; in the winter, the recipe is saltier and
lemongrass and fish sauce are added.
Hu Tiu (My Tho Noodle Soup)
My Tho seafood noodle soup is different from Chinese
noodle soup, nam vang soup, and Hue beef noodle
soup, because it contains soy bean, lemon, chili, and soy sauce instead of
herbs and lettuce.
Back in the 1960s, a shop in My Tho, 70 km from Ho Chi Minh City,
started serving this dish using a secret recipe for the rice noodles. Ever
since then, its reputation has grown to become a very well known meal in
It is said that the most delicious noodle soup is made with Co Cat
rice, from the most famous rice growing area of My Phong village, a suburb
of My Tho.
The sweet aroma of the broth comes from the meat, dried squid, and
My Tho noodle soup is a traditional dish specific to the south.
Lau Mam (Mixed Soup)
Lau mam was a popular dish among farming communities
hundreds of years ago, especially in the southwestern provinces. Nowadays,
lau mam is considered a delicacy and is often served to special guests.
Lau designates the broth, and mam the salted fish.
The main ingredient
used in the broth is marinated fish to which meat and vegetables are
added. Various ingredients, such as seafood, fish, and meat, are prepared
on separate plates. Guests choose and boil their meat in the broth. The
meal is accompanied by several fresh vegetables and aromatic herbs.
This dish is particularly enjoyed since so many alternatives are
possible, offering a wide array of delicious flavours.
Canh Chua (Fish Sour Soup)
chua originated from the Mekong Region, more specifically from Dong Thap
Muoi. Canh chua is a fish sour soup made with fish from the Mekong River
and so dua flower. This dish is mostly served when the so dua flower first
blossoms at the end of the rainy season. A feast is organized and the fish
sour soup is among the delicious meals prepared for this event. Fish sour
soup must be eaten very hot. It must also be eaten all at one time since
the taste is altered when the soup is reheated.
Chao Tom (Grilled Shrimp Paste)
Foreigners often say that grilled shrimp paste is a very
unusual dish made from very simple ingredients. The recipe consists of
clean shrimps placed in coconut water. The shrimps are later grilled and
ground to obtain shrimp flour. The flour is mixed with fat and sugar to
finally obtain shrimp paste. This dish is served with fish sauce
Banh trang Trang Bang (Rice Cakes)
Trang Bang, located 40 km from Ho Chi Minh City, is where one can find the
best rice paper and rice cakes.
Both can be found everywhere, but nowhere are they better than in Trang Bang
where they are made from local rice. The rice flour is roasted for four or five
hours and made into thick cakes. Once the cakes are dried, they are placed into
These cakes can be eaten with shrimp, meat, salad, and coriander. During Tet,
the cakes are served with roasted meat, eggs, and sour mustard.
Stuffed omelets (Banh khoai)
Stuffed omelette (banh khoai), most comfortably described as Vietnam's
version of the taco, is today probably the best-known dish from Hue.
Stuffed omelets made with rice flour and flavoured with cumin, it is fried until
deliciously crispy around the edges in pans over charcoal burners. It is filled
with little mounds of pounded pork, shrimps, a few bean sprouts and some mashed
green beans, and then folded over.
To eat it, you break a piece off with chopsticks and wrap it in fresh mustard
greens with fresh green herbs, slices of green banana and green fig, and dip it
in sauce. The fresh leaves, which include the spicy, red-tinged cumin leaf, help
to cut through any oiliness in the fried dish, as does the sourness of the
banana and fig, which are also digestive aids.
The roll you create can be enormous if you do not limit yourself to a
carefully-wrapped small piece of banh khoai. Hence, it is not a dish which
Vietnamese girl, who are make a show of barely eating in front of the opposite
sex, would feel comfortable ordering because it requires opening your mouth to
almost of proportion.
Given that women in Hue are probably even more graceful and shy than their
southern counterparts, an increased sense of table etiquette may be one of the
reasons why banh khoai is actually a restrained Hue version of Ho Chi Minh
City's larger and bulkier banh xeo.
Although xeo refers to the south of the pancake batter sizzling in butter, it is
never as crisp as banh khoai. It also incorporates that favourite southern
ingredient, coconut milk, and you can eat it at many street stalls or
hole-in-the-wall restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City.